Can. 554

§ 1. An institute in which the members profess the evangelical counsels by some sacred bond but not by religious vows, and imitate the manner of life of the religious state, under the governance of superiors in accordance with approved statutes, is a society of common life in the manner of religious.

§ 2. Such a society is of pontifical, patriarchal or eparchial law, in accordance with the norm of can. 505, § 2; it is clerical, according to the norm of can. 505, § 3; dependent on the ecclesiastical authority as congregations are, in accordance with the norm of cann. 413 – 415, 419, 420, § 3 and with due regard to particular law established by the Apostolic See, can.418,§ 2.

§ 3. Members of these societies are equivalent to religious in what pertains to the canonical effects unless the law provides otherwise or it is apparent from the nature of the matter.

Can. 555

All members of these societies are subject to the Roman Pontiff as their supreme superior, to whom they are obliged also in virtue of the sacred bond of obedience.

 Can. 556

In respect to the erection and suppression of a society and of its provinces or houses, the same prescriptions as those established for congregations in cann. 506 – 510 are to be applied.

Can. 557

The mode of governance is to be defined by the statutes of the society. In all, however, the norms of cann. 442 and 511 – 515 on congregations shall be applied, unless this is against the nature of the matter.

Can. 558

§ 1. The society, its provinces and houses, lawfully erected, are by the law itself juridical persons according to the norm of can. 423.

§ 2. The administration of goods shall be governed by the prescriptions of cann. 424, 425 and 516.

§ 3. Whatever members acquire in respect to the society is acquired for the society; other property the members retain, acquire and administer in conformity with the statutes.

 Can. 559

§ 1. The statutes shall be observed regarding the admission of candidates in the society with due regard for cann. 450 and 451.

§ 2. The statutes shall be observed in respect to the formation of members, but in respect to the formation of members who are destined for holy orders the canons on the formation of clerics are to be followed.

Can. 560

§ 1. In accordance with the norm of the statutes, the major superior of a society can issue dimissorial letters for holy orders to be conferred on perpetually incorporated members; these letters are to be sent to the bishop mentioned in can. 537, § 2.

§ 2. A perpetually incorporated member is ascribed as a cleric to the society by diaconal ordination or, in the case of a cleric already ascribed to an eparchy, by perpetual incorporation.

Can. 561

The members of a society are bound by the obligations which are prescribed for clerics by common law, unless the law provides otherwise or it is otherwise certain from the nature of the matter, without prejudice to the rights and obligations determined in the statutes.



Can. 562

§ 1. In the case of transfer to another society of living in common according to the manner of religious or to a religious institute, the consent is required of the superior general of the society from which the transfer is being made and, if it is in regard to a transfer to a society of another Church sui iuris, also the consent of the Apostolic See.

§ 2. A member who moves to another religious institute must go through the entire novitiate and is equivalent to other novices of the institute; with respect to profession, the statutes of the new institute are to be followed.

§ 3. Without prejudice to cann. 497 and 498, in order to dismiss a member after perpetual incorporation, the superior general is competent, observing cann. 500 – 503, but a temporarily incorporated member is dismissed in accordance with can. 552.

§ 4. It shall be determined in the statutes of the society the authority who is to dispense from the sacred bond.

Can 563

§ 1. A secular institute is a society in which the members:

1° tend to achieve a total dedication of themselves to God by professing the three evangelical counsels according to the statutes, their profession being confirmed by some sacred bond recognized by the Church;

2° exercise some apostolic activity in the manner of leaven in the world and out of the world so as to imbue everything with the spirit of the gospel for the strengthening and increase of the Body of Christ;

3° do not imitate the manner of life of religious, but lead a life of communion among themselves according to their statutes;

4° clerics or lay people, in respect to all canonical effects, remain each in their own state.

§ 2. Secular institutes are of pontifical, patriarchal or eparchial law, in accordance with can. 505, § 2.

Can. 564

The members of the secular institutes are subject to the Roman Pontiff as their supreme superior, whom they are obliged to obey also in virtue of the sacred bond of obedience.

Can. 565

A member of a secular institute is ascribed as a cleric in virtue of diaconal ordination in the eparchy for whose service he was ordained, unless he is ascribed to the institute in virtue of a concession of the Apostolic See, or, if it is a secular institute of patriarchal law, of the patriarch.

Can. 566

Regarding the erection and suppression of secular institutes, their statutes as well as their dependence on ecclesiastical authority cann. 414, 506, 507, § 2, 509 and 510 on congregations shall be observed.

Can. 567

§ 1. The secular institutes, their provinces and houses, lawfully erected, are ipso iure juridical persons, according to the norm of can. 423.

§ 2. The administration of goods is governed by cann. 424 and 425.

Can. 568

§1. In admitting candidates, the statutes are to be observed with due regard for can. 450.

§ 2. A perpetually incorporated member of a secular institute is dismissed  by a decree issued in accordance with the statutes; however the decree cannot be executed unless it is approved by the eparchial bishop or by the competent higher ecclesiastical authority; it is up to the same eparchial bishop or authority also to dissolve the sacred bond.

Can. 569

It is reserved to the particular law of each Church sui iuris to enact more detailed norms concerning secular institutes.




Can. 570

Particular law can establish other kinds of ascetics who imitate eremitical life, belonging or not to an institute of consecrated life. Consecrated virgins and widows who live on their own in the world, having publicly professed chastity, can also come under norms of particular law.

Can. 571

It is reserved to the Apostolic See to approve new forms of consecrated life. Patriarchs and eparchial bishops shall strive to discover new gifts of consecrated life as entrusted to the Church by the Holy Spirit, and they shall support their promoters in order that they may better manifest their purpose, and shall protect them by appropriate statutes.

Can. 572

Societies of apostolic life, whose members without religious vows pursue the particular apostolic purpose of the society, and leading a life as brothers in common according to their own rule of life, striving for the perfection of charity through the observance of their constitutions, and which are comparable to institutes of the consecrated life are governed only by the particular law of their own Church sui iuris or established by the Apostolic See.





Can. 573

§ 1. Associations which are erected by competent ecclesiastical authority, or approved by the decree of the same authority, are juridical persons in the Church and are called public associations.

§ 2. Other associations, even if praised or recommended by ecclesiastical authority, are called private associations; these associations are not recognized in the Church, unless their statutes are reviewed by competent authority; for the rest, they are regulated only by particular law with due regard for can. 577.

Can. 574

With due regard in any case for can. 18, the competent ecclesiastical authority alone has the right to erect associations of Christian faithful which set out to teach Christian doctrine in the name of the Church or to promote public worship or which aim at other ends whose pursuit by their nature is reserved to the same ecclesiastical authority.

Can. 575

§ 1. The competent authority for erecting or approving associations of Christian faithful, for associations and their confederations:

1° the eparchial bishop for eparchial associations, but not the administrator of the eparchy, excepting those associations whose erection has been reserved to others by apostolic or patriarchal privilege;

2° the patriarch after consultation with his permanent synod, or the metropolitan after consultation with the two eparchial bishops senior in Episcopal ordination, for associations open to all Christian faithful of any patriarchal or metropolitan Church sui iuris and which has its principal see within the territorial boundaries of the same Church;

3° the Apostolic See for other types.

§ 2. For the erection of any branch of any non-eparchial association, the written consent of the eparchial bishop is required; however, the consent given by an eparchial bishop for the erection of a house of a religious institute also allows for the erection in the same house or church attached to it, of an association proper to the institute.

Can. 576

§ 1. Every association is to have its own statutes, in which are defined its name, purpose, headquarters, government and the conditions required for membership. Besides these things, the statutes are to determine its policies in accordance with the rite of their own Church sui iuris and the needs or usefulness of the place and time.

§ 2. The statutes and their modification require the approval of the ecclesiastical authority which erected or approved the association.

Can. 577

§ 1. Every association is subject to the vigilance of the ecclesiastical authority which erected or approved it; this authority is to see that the integrity of faith and morals is preserved in them, and to watch lest abuse should creep into ecclesiastical discipline.

§ 2. It is the duty of the eparchial bishop to be vigilant of all associations exercising activity in his territory, and as the case may be, to notify the authority which has erected or approved them, and further, if the action of the association causes serious harm to ecclesiastical doctrine or discipline, or is a scandal to Christian faithful, to apply appropriate remedies in the meantime.

Can. 578

§ 1. The reception of members is to be done in accordance with the norm of common law and the statutes of the association.

§ 2. The same person can be ascribed to several associations.

§ 3. Members of religious institutes can give their name in associations, according to the norm of typicon or statutes with the consent of their superior.

Can. 579

No association of Christian faithful can ascribe its members as clerics without a special concession of the Apostolic See, or, if it is an association covered by can. 575, § 1, n. 2, by the patriarch, with the consent of the permanent synod.

Can. 580

One who has publicly rejected the Catholic faith, or has publicly abandoned communion with the Catholic Church, or has been punished with major excommunication, cannot validly be received into associations; but if he has already been lawfully ascribed, he should be declared dismissed by the local hierarch ipso iure.

Can. 581

No one who has been lawfully ascribed to an association may be dismissed from it except for a just reason in accordance with the norms of common law and of the statutes.

 Can. 582

A lawfully erected or approved association administers temporal goods according to the norms of the cann. 1007 – 1054 and according to the norm of its own statutes, under the vigilance of the authority which erected or approved it, to whom the association must render an account of its administration each year.

Can. 583

§ 1. Associations erected or approved by the Apostolic See can be only suppressed by the Apostolic See.

§ 2. The other associations can be suppressed not only by the Apostolic See but, without prejudice to can. 927, § 2 and with due regard for the right of recourse with suspensive effect according to the norm of law:

1° by the patriarch with the consent of the permanent synod; or by the metropolitan who presides in a metropolitan Church sui iuris, with the consent of the two senior eparchial bishops according to episcopal ordination;

2° by an eparchial bishop, if the associations were erected or approved by him.



Can. 584

§ 1. The Church, following the mandate of Christ to evangelize all peoples, and moved by the grace and charity of the Holy Spirit, recognizes herself to be totally missionary.

§ 2. The evangelization of the peoples should be so done that, preserving the integrity of faith and morals, the Gospel can be expressed in the culture of individual peoples; namely, in catechetics, their own liturgical rites, in sacred art, in particular law, and, in short, the whole ecclesial life.

Can. 585

§ 1. Each of the Churches sui iuris is to continually see that, through suitably prepared preachers sent by the competent authority according to the norms of the common law, the Gospel is preached in the whole world under the guidance of the Roman Pontiff.

§ 2. The synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church or the council of hierarchs is to establish a commission to foster a more effective co-operation among all the eparchies in the missionary activity of the Church.

§ 3. In the individual eparchies a priest is to be designated to effectively promote endeavours on behalf of the missions.

 § 4. Christian faithful are to promote among themselves and others knowledge and love for the missions, to pray for them, to inspire vocations and support them generously with their own means.

Can. 586

It is strictly forbidden to compel, to coax through wily tricks or to allure anyone to join the Church. All the Christian faithful are to be concerned that the right to religious freedom is vindicated, so that no one is frightened off the Church by unjust harassment.

Can. 587

§ 1. Persons who desire to join the Church are to be admitted with liturgical ceremonies to the catechumenate, which is not a mere presentation of teachings and precepts, but a formation in all the Christian life.

§ 2. Persons who are ascribed to the catechumenate have the right to be admitted to the liturgy of the word and other liturgical celebrations not reserved to Christian faithful.

§ 3. It is for the particular law to enact norms to regulate the catechumenate, determining what is to be done by the catechumens and what prerogatives are recognized as theirs.

Can. 588

Catechumens are at liberty to be ascribed in whatever Church sui iuris they want, according to the norm of can. 30; however, precaution is to be taken against their being given any advice that prevents their ascription in the Church that is more appropriate to their culture.

Can. 589

Missionaries either native or non-native are to be equipped with the necessary skills and ability; they are to be suitably trained in missiology and missionary spirituality, as well as instructed in the history and culture of the peoples to be evangelized.

Can. 590

In missionary activity attention must be paid that the young Churches reach maturity as soon as possible and be fully constituted so that, under the guidance of their own hierarchy, they can provide for themselves, and undertake and carry on the work of evangelization.

Can. 591

Missionaries are to be diligent in ensuring that:

1° vocations to the sacred ministries are prudently promoted among the neophytes so that the young Churches flourish at the earliest with native clergy;

2° the formation of catechists is such that, as valid co-operators of the sacred ministers, they can fittingly discharge their task in the work of evangelization and in liturgical service. In particular law provision is to be made for the just remuneration of the catechists.

Can. 592

§ 1. In mission territories suitable forms of lay apostolate are to be fostered with special care; institutes of consecrated life are to be promoted taking into account the particular genius and character of the different peoples; schools and other such institutions of Christian education and cultural progress are to be established, as needed.

§ 2. Moreover, dialogue and co-operation with non-Christians are to be fostered earnestly and prudently.

Can. 593

§ 1. As all the presbyters of whatever condition working in a mission territory form one presbyterate, they are to co-operate zealously in the work of evangelization.

§ 2. They are to co-operate readily, in accordance with can. 908, with all other Christian missionaries, so that they can render united witness to Christ the Lord.

Can. 594

Mission territories are those recognized as such by the Apostolic See.






Can. 595

§ 1. Christ the Lord has entrusted to the Church the deposit of faith so that, by the assistance of the Holy Spirit, it may conscientiously guard revealed truth, profoundly investigate it and faithfully proclaim and expound it; the Church has hence the innate right, independent of any human power, and the duty to preach the gospel to all people.

§ 2. The Church has the right always and everywhere to proclaim moral principles, including those pertaining to the social order, and to make judgements about any human affair in so far as this is required by the dignity and the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls.

Can. 596

The office of teaching in the name of the Church belongs only to bishops; but that function is shared, according to the norm of law, both by those who have been made collaborators of the bishops by sacred orders and by those who, though not in sacred orders, have received the mandate to teach.

Can. 597

§ 1. The Roman Pontiff, in virtue of his office (munus), possesses infallible teaching authority who, as supreme pastor and teacher of all Christian faithful , has the duty to confirm his fellow believers in the faith,, he proclaims with a definitive act that a doctrine of faith or morals is to be held.

§ 2. The college of bishops also possesses infallible teaching authority if the bishops, gathered in an ecumenical council, exercise their teaching authority, and, as teachers and judges of faith and morals for the universal Church, declare that a doctrine of faith or morals must be definitively held; they also exercise it scattered throughout the world but united in a bond of communion among themselves and with the successor of Peter when together with that same Roman Pontiff in their capacity as authentic teachers of faith and morals they agree on an opinion to be held as definitive.

§ 3. No doctrine is understood to be infallibly defined unless it is clearly established as such.

Can. 598

Those things are to be believed by divine and catholic faith which are contained in the word of God as it has been written or handed down by tradition, that is, in the single deposit of faith entrusted to the Church, and which are at the same time proposed as divinely revealed either by the solemn magisterium of the Church, or by its ordinary and universal magisterium, which in fact is manifested by the common adherence of Christ\’s faithful under the guidance of the sacred magisterium. All are therefore bound to shun any contrary doctrines.

 Can. 599

A religious obsequium of intellect and will, even if not the assent of faith, is to be paid to the teaching on faith and morals which the Roman Pontiff or the college of bishops enunciate when they exercise the authentic magisterium even if they do not intend to proclaim it with a definitive act; therefore Christian faithful are to take care to avoid whatever is not in harmony with that teaching.

Can. 600

Whether they teach individually, or gathered together in synods or in particular councils, bishops in communion with the head and members of the College, while not infallible in their teaching, are the authentic instructors and teachers of the faith for the faithful entrusted to their care. The faithful are bound to adhere with religious obsequium of mind to the authentic magisterium of their bishops.

Can. 601

Each Church has the task, which is to be accomplished in the first place by the patriarchs and the bishops in a manner adapted to each age and culture, of answering the perennial questions concerning the meaning of life and having examined the signs of the times in the light of the gospel, providing Christian solutions to the more pressing problems, so that the light of Christ might shine everywhere more brightly illuminating all people.

Can. 602

In pastoral care besides the principles of sacred sciences the contributions of other sciences also are to be recognized and utilized, so that Christian faithful may be led to a more conscious and reflective life of faith.

 Can. 603

Literature and arts, given their unique power to express and communicate the sense of faith, are to be promoted recognizing due freedom and cultural diversity.

 Can. 604

It is above all for the pastors of the Church to be diligent in ensuring that amidst the varieties of doctrinal enunciations in the various Churches the same sense of faith is preserved and promoted, so that the integrity and unity of faith suffer no harm, rather that the catholicity of the Church is brought into better focus through legitimate diversity.

Can. 605

It pertains to bishops, especially as they are gathered in synods or councils, but in a unique way to the Apostolic See, to promote authoritatively, to guard and conscientiously to defend the integrity and unity of faith and good morals, even reprobating, according to need, opinions that are contrary to them or warning about those things that can endanger them.

Can. 606

§ 1. It is for theologians, given their profound understanding of the mystery of salvation and their expertise in the sacred and related sciences as well as in current problems, to elucidate the faith of the Church, to defend it and to pave the way for doctrinal progress, while faithfully submitting to the authentic magisterium of the Church and at the same time availing themselves of proper freedom.

§ 2. In the research and expression of theological truths, it is for them to be solicitous about the community of faith that is to be built up, and as resource persons to co-operate diligently with the bishops in the discharge of their teaching office.

§ 3. Those engaged in theological subjects in seminaries, universities and faculties are to seek to co-operate with those well versed in other fields of learning by the sharing of views and resources.



Can. 607

The ministry of the word of God, namely preaching, catechesis and all forms of Christian instruction, among which the liturgical homily should hold pride of place, is to be wholesomely nourished by sacred Scripture and is to be based on sacred tradition. The celebration of the word of God is to be seasonably fostered.

Can. 608

It is bishops, priests and deacons – each one according to the grade of his sacred order – who exercise in the first place the ministry of the word of God. This ministry is to be exercised according to the norm of law. Other Christian faithful, too, are to take part in it readily, according to each one\’s aptitude and state of life, and after having received a mandate.



Can. 609

The eparchial bishop is competent to regulate the preaching of the word of God in his territory, without prejudice to common law.

Can. 610

§ 1. Bishops have the right to preach the word of God everywhere, unless the eparchial bishop in a special case expressly forbids it.

§ 2. Priests have the faculty to preach where they are legitimately sent or invited.

§ 3. Deacons too have the same faculty, unless particular law has determined otherwise.

§ 4. In extraordinary circumstances, especially to supply for the scarcity of clerics, the eparchial bishop also may give the mandate to preach even in church to other Christian faithful, observing can. 614, § 4.

Can. 611

By virtue of their office, all who have been entrusted with the care of souls have the faculty to preach, they can also invite any priest or without prejudice to can. 610, § 3, any deacon to preach to those committed to their care, unless these are legitimately prohibited.

Can. 612

§ 1. In religious institutes or societies of common life in the manner of clerical religious of pontifical or patriarchal law, the major superiors are the moderators of preaching.

§ 2. All superiors, even local ones, of whatever institute of consecrated life, can invite to preach to their own subjects any priest or, without prejudice to can. 610, § 3, any deacon, unless these are legitimately prohibited.

Can. 613

Against the decree of a hierarch forbidding someone to preach, there is recourse in devolutivo only, which must be resolved without delay.

Can. 614

§ 1. The homily, in which during the course of the liturgical year the mysteries of faith and the norms of Christian living are expounded from Sacred Scripture, is strongly recommended as part of the liturgy itself.

§ 2. Parish priests and rectors of churches have the obligation to take care that a homily is preached at least during the Divine Liturgy on Sundays and holy days of obligation. It is not to be omitted except for a grave reason.

§ 3. Parish priests are not allowed to have habitually a substitute to discharge their duty to preach to the people committed to their pastoral care except for a just reason approved by the local hierarch.

§ 4. The homily is reserved to a priest or, according to norm of particular law, also to a deacon.

Can. 615

Eparchial bishops are to issue norms so that special series of sacred preaching are held at suitable times for the spiritual renewal of the Christian people.

Can. 616

§ 1. The preachers of the word of God should set aside words of human wisdom and abstruse themes and preach to Christian faithful the entire mystery of Christ, who is the way, the truth and the life; let them show that earthly things and human institutions are also ordered, according to the plan of God the Creator, to the salvation of humanity, and that they can therefore make no small contribution to the building up of the Body of Christ.

§ 2. Let them teach also the doctrine of the Church about the dignity of the human person and fundamental human rights, about family life, social and civil life, the sense of justice to be pursued in the world of work and of economics, a sense which can make for the building of peace on earth and bring about the progress of peoples.



Can. 617

Each Church sui iuris and particularly their bishops have the serious duty of providing catechesis, by which faith matures and the disciple of Christ is formed through a deeper and more systematic knowledge of the teaching of Christ and through an increasingly stronger commitment to the person of Christ.

Can. 618

Before all others it is parents who are in duty bound to form their children, by word and example, in faith and Christian living. Those who take the place of parents and sponsors are bound by an equal obligation.

Can. 619

Besides the Christian family, the parish itself and every ecclesial community have to ensure the catechetical formation of their members and their integration in the same community, by assuring those conditions in which what they learn can be lived to the full.

 Can. 620

Associations, movements and groups of Christ\’s faithful having for their goal piety, apostolate or charitable works and assistance are to ensure the religious formation of their members under the guidance of the local hierarch.

Can. 621

§ 1. The synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church or the council of hierarchs is competent to enact norms on catechetical formation within the territorial boundaries of their own Church, observing what has been prescribed by the supreme authority of the Church. The said norms are to be aptly arranged in a catechetical directory.

§ 2. In this catechetical directory the special character of the Eastern Churches is to be taken into account, so that the biblical and liturgical dimensions as well as the traditions of the respective Church sui iuris in patrology, hagiography, and even iconography are highlighted in the imparting of catechesis.

§ 3. Synods of bishops of the patriarchal Church or councils of hierarchs are to see to it that catechisms adapted to the various groups of Christ\’s faithful are prepared along with aids and resources, and that the different catechetical initiatives are promoted and are co-ordinated among themselves.

Can. 622

§ 1. In each Church sui iuris there is to be a catechetical commission, which may be established together with the other Churches sui iuris for the same territory or socio-cultural region.

§ 2. This commission is to avail itself of a catechetical centre, which is to be of service to the same Churches in accomplishing their catechetical tasks in a co-ordinated and of more efficacious way and to assure the formation, including the ongoing formation, of catechists.

Can. 623

§ 1. It is for the eparchial bishops to promote, direct, and regulate the catechetical formation in his eparchy with the utmost solicitude.

§ 2. For this purpose the services of an eparchial catechetical centre are to be available to the eparchial curia.

Can. 624

The parish priest should, keeping to the norms determined by competent authority, make the utmost effort to give catechesis to all persons entrusted to his pastoral care, whatever their age or condition.

§ 2. Presbyters and deacons attached to the parish are bound to render their assistance to the parish priests; members of religious institutes, however, are to assist in accordance with cann. 479 and 542.

§ 3. Other Christian faithful, properly formed, are to be ready to offer their help in giving catechesis.

Can. 625

Catechesis should be ecumenical in orientation and present the correct image of the other Churches and ecclesial communities. Care is to be taken that the right spirit of Catholic catechesis is safeguarded at all costs.

Can. 626

Let all who are engaged in catechesis remember that they represent the Church, and that they have been sent to communicate the revealed word of God, not their own; they are therefore to present the entire doctrine of the Church, albeit adapted to those they are catechizing and responsive to the demands of their culture.



Can. 627

§ 1. The responsibility for the education of children belongs primarily to their parents or to those who take their place. Therefore it is for them to educate their children, especially in piety toward God and love of neighbour, in the context of a Christian family that is illumined by faith and animated by mutual love.

 § 2. In so far as it is beyond their own resources to provide for the overall education of their children, it is also up to them to entrust others with a share of their educational task and to choose those means of education that are necessary or useful.

§ 3. Parents are to enjoy true freedom in the choice of the means of education, without prejudice to can. 633; therefore the Christian faithful are to see that this right is recognized by the civil authority and even fostered by suitable assistance in accordance with the requirements of justice.

Can. 628

§ 1. The Church, which has generated new creatures through baptism, has the duty to care for their Catholic education together with parents.

§ 2. All those who are entrusted with the care of souls must help parents in educating their children, make them aware of their rights and obligations and provide for the religious education especially of young people.

Can. 629

All educators are to pay heed to the formation of the whole human person in such a way that young people, having developed their physical, intellectual and moral talents harmoniously, and well versed in the Christian virtues, may be disposed to knowing and loving God more perfectly, to evaluating human and moral values with right conscience and accepting them in true freedom, and having developed a sense of justice and social responsibility, to pursuing loving fellowship with others.

Can. 630

§ 1. Christian faithful are to work generously so that the appropriate benefits of education and instruction can be extended to all people everywhere, with special concern for the less fortune.

§ 2. All Christian faithful should support the initiatives of the Church in promoting education, especially in erecting, conducting and maintaining schools.



Can. 631

§ 1. Among the various means of education the Catholic school is to be fostered with special care, and it should be the focus of the concern of the parents, of the teachers, and of the ecclesial community.

§ 2. It is the right of the Church to establish and supervise schools of any type or level.

Can. 632

A school is not considered Catholic in law unless it was established as such by the eparchial bishop or by a superior ecclesiastical authority or has been recognized as such by them.

Can. 633

§ 1. The eparchial bishop has the right to judge any school whatever and to decide whether it fulfils the requirements of Christian education or not; he has also the right to forbid the Christian faithful, for a grave reason, to attend a particular school.

§ 2. Parents should send their children to Catholic schools, other things being equal.

Can. 634

§ 1. The Catholic school has a particular obligation to create an atmosphere animated by the gospel spirit of freedom and love in the school community, to help the young in the development of their own personality in such a way that at one and the same time they grow in accordance with that new creature in to which they have been transformed through baptism, and it should so orient the whole of human culture to the message of salvation that the knowledge which the students gradually acquire of the world, of life and of mankind is illumined by faith.

§ 2. It is up to the Catholic school to adapt these things to the particular circumstances under the supervision of the competent ecclesiastical authority, if for the most part its pupils are non-Catholics.

§ 3. It is up to the Catholic school to pursue, no less than other schools, cultural goals as well as the human and social formation of the young people.

Can. 635

The eparchial bishop is to see to it that Catholic schools are established especially in those places where other schools are lacking or are inadequate; so too professional and technical schools as required especially by particular circumstances of place and time.

Can. 636

§ 1. Catechetical formation in any school whatever is subject to the authority and vigilance of the eparchial bishop.

§ 2. It is also the responsibility of the eparchial bishop to nominate or approve the teachers of Catholic religion as well as to remove them or demand their removal, if necessary for reasons of faith or morals.

Can. 637

In those schools in which Catholic instruction is lacking or, in the judgement of the eparchial bishop, is deficient, true Catholic formation must be supplied for all the Catholic students.

Can. 638

§ 1. The eparchial bishop has the right of visiting all the Catholic schools in his eparchy, excepting those schools meant exclusively for the students of institutes of consecrated life that are of pontifical or patriarchal law, and in case without prejudice to the autonomy of those institutes of consecrated life as regards the management of their schools.

§ 2. Where there are several eparchial bishops, the right of canonical visitation belongs to the one who founded or approved the school, unless it is stipulated otherwise in the stautes of foundation or in a special agreement made by the same bishops.

Can. 639

As it depends chiefly on the teachers a Catholic school achieves its purpose and realizes its undertakings, they be outstanding in doctrine and exemplary in the witness of their lives; and they are to work in close collaboration chiefly with the parents but also with other schools.



Can. 640

§1. The Catholic university aims at making the Christian viewpoint bring to bear on the programme to promote the whole range of higher culture in a public, stable and universal manner; therefore it provides higher education in research, reflection and teaching, in which the various areas of human knowledge are illumined by the light of the gospel.

§ 2. Other institutes of higher education or autonomous Catholic faculties having the same object are equivalent to Catholic universities, however, ecclesiastical universities and faculties dealt with in cann. 646 – 650, are not.

 Can. 641

In Catholic universities each field of study is to be cultivated according to its own principles, its own method and the freedom of scientific inquiry that is proper to it, so that as time goes on a deeper understanding of these disciplines may be obtained, and by paying careful attention to contemporary problems and research the convergence of faith and reason in the one truth may be seen more clearly, and that persons outstanding in doctrine may be formed who are ready to fill the more responsible posts in society and to bear witness to their faith in the world.

Can. 642

§ 1. A Catholic university is an institute of higher studies which is erected as such or is approved either by the higher administrative authority of a Church sui iuris after previous consultation of the Apostolic See or by the Apostolic See itself; such erection or approval must be by public document.

§ 2. Within the territorial boundaries of a patriarchal Church this higher authority is the patriarch with the consent of the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church.

Can. 643

In Catholic universities in which there is no faculty of theology, at least courses are to be given in theology adapted to the students of the various faculties.

Can. 644

Those who teach subjects regarding faith and morals in Catholic universities must possess a mandate of the ecclesiastical authority designated by those mentioned in can. 642; the same authority can take away this mandate for a serious reason especially if the teachers lack scientific or pedagogical suitability, probity, or integrity of doctrine.

Can. 645

It is the responsibility of hierarchs to provide, after due consultation, in hostels and Catholic university centers, also in other universities; carefully chosen and prepared Christian faithful should offer spiritual and intelletual help to young university students on a permanent basis.



Can. 646

Hierarchs above all are to promote ecclesiastical universities and faculties, that is, those which deal chiefly with Christian revelation and sciences connected with it and so are closely linked with the Church\’s task of evangelization.

Can. 647

The aim of ecclesiastical universities and faculties is:

1° to inquire more deeply and scientifically into divine revelation and all that is related to it, to analyse and to structure systematically the truths of divine revelation, to study contemporary problems in its light, and to present these matters to the people of today in a way that is suited to their culture.

2° to give higher education to students of various disciplines according to Catholic doctrine and to prepare them properly for various apostolates or ministries or for teaching the same disciplines, and to promote ongoing formation.

Can. 648

Ecclesiastical universities and faculties are those that have been canonically erected or approved by competent ecclesiastical authority, cultivate and teach the sacred sciences and related subjects, and have the right to confer academic degrees with canonical effects.

Can. 649

The erection or approbation of ecclesiastical universities or faculties is done either by the Apostolic See or by the superior administrative authority, dealt with in can. 642, together with the Apostolic See.

Can. 650

Regarding the statutes of the ecclesiastical universities and faculties, especially as regards the governance, administration, appointment of teachers and the cessation of their office, programme of studies, and conferral of academic degrees, the norms given by the Apostolic See are to be followed.



Can. 651

§ 1. In order to fulfill its task of announcing the gospel throughout the world the Church has to make use of suitable means. Therefore the right to the use of the means of social communication and in particular to the freedom of the press ought to be vindicated everywhere.

§ 2. All Christ\’s faithful for their part are to collaborate in this great mission of the Church, and support and foster the initiatives of this apostolate. Moreover, let those especially who are experts in the production and the transmission of communications offer their caring help to the pastoral action of the bishops, and earnestly endeavour to bring about the use of the media imbued with the spirit of Christ.

Can. 652

§ 1. Eparchial bishops are to see that with the help of institutes of social communication the Christian faithful are taught to use the media critically and advantageously; they are to foster co-operation among such institutes, see to the formation of experts, and finally promote good initiatives, praising and blessing in the first place good books, a policy that is more efficacious than the censure and condemnation of evil.

§ 2. For the safeguarding of the integrity of faith and morals, the eparchial bishop, the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church, the council of hierarchs, and the Apostolic See are competent to forbid the Christian faithful to use or to pass on to others means of social communication, to the extent that these are detrimental to that same integrity.

Can. 653

It is for the particular law to lay down more detailed norms about the use of radio, cinema, television and the like dealing with Catholic doctrine or morals.

Can. 654

The norms of common law on books apply also to any other writings whatever or messages reproduced by any technical means and intended for public distribution.

Can. 655

§ 1. The Christian faithful ought to have easy access to Sacred Scriptures. Therefore suitable and correct translations, furnished with sufficient explanations, are to be prepared, where they are lacking, under the care of the eparchial bishops, even in collaboration with other Christians, as far as this can be done properly and usefully.

§ 2. Let all the Christian faithful, especially the pastors of souls, be concerned to spread copies of the bible, furnished with apt notes suited also for the use of non-Christians.

§ 3. For liturgical and catechetical purposes only those editions of the sacred scripture which have ecclesiastical approval may be used; other editions must have at least ecclesiastical permission.

Can. 656

§ 1. Only those books which have ecclesiastical approval may be used in liturgical celebrations.

§ 2. Books of prayer or devotions, intended for either the public or the private use of the Christian faithful, are to have ecclesiastical permission.

Can. 657

§ 1. The approval of liturgical texts, after prior review of the Apostolic See, is reserved in patriarchal Churches to the patriarch with the consent of the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church, in metropolitan Churches sui iuris to the metropolitan with the consent of the council of hierarchs; in other Churches this right rests exclusively with the Apostolic See, and, within the limits set by it, to bishops and to their lawfully constituted assemblies.

§ 2. The same authorities are also competent to approve the translations of these books meant for liturgical use, after sending a report to the Apostolic see in the case of patriarchal Churches and metropolitan Churches sui iuris.

§ 3. To reprint liturgical books or their translations into another language or even parts thereof, if intended for liturgical use, it is required and suffices to establish their correspondence with the approved edition by an attestation of the local hierarch referred to in can. 662, §1.

§ 4. In making changes in liturgical texts, attention is to be paid to can. 40, § 1.

Can. 658

§ 1. Catechisms and other writings intended for catechetical instruction in schools of whatever kind and grade, and their translations, need ecclesiastical approval.

§ 2. The same norm is to be applied also to other books dealing with faith and morals, if they are used as textbooks for catechetical instruction.

Can. 659

It is recommended that all writings whatever which explain the faith or morals of the Church have at least ecclesiastical permission, without prejudice to the prescriptions of institutes of consecrated life, which require more.

 Can. 660

Unless there is a just and reasonable cause, no member of the Christian faithful may write in newspapers, magazines or periodicals which are accustomed to attack openly the Catholic religion or good morals; clerics and members of religious institutes moreover need the permission of those spoken of in can. 662.

Can. 661

§ 1. Ecclesiastical permission, expressed only with the word imprimatur, means that the work is free from errors regarding Catholic faith and morals.

§ 2. Approval granted by competent authority shows that the text is accepted by the Church or that the work is in accordance with the authentic doctrine of the Church.

§ 3. A work that is in addition praised or blessed by the eparchial bishop or superior authority means that it expresses well the authentic doctrine of the Church and therefore is to be recommended.

Can. 662

§ 1. Ecclesiastical approval or permission to publish books may be granted, unless expressly stated otherwise in the law, either by the author\’s own local hierarch or by the hierarch of the place of publication, or finally by a superior authority having executive power over these persons or places.

 § 2. In order to publish writings dealing with religious and moral topics, members of religious institutes need also the permission of their major superior, according to the norm of their typicon or statutes.

Can. 663

§ 1. Permission to publish a work or its approval, praise, or blessing is valid only for the original text, but not for new editions or translations.

§ 2. In case of editions of the Sacred Scriptures or other books requiring ecclesiastical approval by law, the approval llawfully granted by one hierarch of the place is not enough for its use in another eparchy, but the explicit consent of the hierarch of that eparchy is required.

Can. 664

§ 1. The local hierarch may abide by the judgement about books given by censors selected from the list drawn up by the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church, or the council of hierarchs, or he may rely on others, according to this discretion; also a special commission of censors may be set up for the local hierarch, the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church, or the council of hierarchs to consult.

§ 2. The censors selected are to be outstanding for their knowledge, right doctrine and prudence; in carrying out their office they are to give their judgement without any partiality but in accordance with Catholic doctrine as proposed by the Church\’s authentic magisterium.

§ 3. The censors must give their opinion in writing; if it is favourable, the hierarch may grant permission or approval, according to his discretion, expressly in his own name; otherwise he must inform the author of the reasons for the refusal.

Can. 665

§ 1. Parish priests and rectors of churches are to be watchful that in their churches are not displayed, sold or distributed either icons or images that are not in keeping with genuine sacred art or books that are not in harmony with the Christian religion or morals.

§ 2. So also parish priests and rectors of churches and directors of Catholic schools have to take care that shows of whatever type conducted under their sponsorship are selected with the sense of Christian discretion.

§ 3. Let all the Christian faithful be careful not to bring spiritual harm upon themselves or others by buying, selling, reading, or passing on to others those things mentioned in § 1.

Can. 666

§ 1. The fruit of an author\’s intellectual efforts is under the protection of the law whether as the expression of the author\’s personality or as the source of patrimonial rights.

§ 2. Under the protection of law are the texts of laws and the official acts of whatever ecclesiastical authority and of their authentic collections; and therefore they may not be republished without obtaining the permission of the same or superior authority, and observing the conditions laid down by it.

§ 3. More detailed norms about this matter may be issued in the particular law of each Church sui iuris, in accordance with the civil laws concerning the rights of authors




Can. 667

Through the sacraments, which the Church is bound to dispense to communicate the mysteries of Christ under visible signs, our Lord Jesus Christ sanctifies people by the power of the Holy Spirit, so that they become in a unique way true worshipers of God the Father and are inserted into Christ and the Church, His Body; therefore all Christ\’s faithful, especially sacred ministers, are to observe diligently the prescriptions of the Church in the conscientious celebration and reception of the sacraments.

Can. 668

§ 1. Divine worship, if it is done in the name of the Church by a person lawfully appointed for this and through an act approved by the authority of the Church, is called public; if not, it is called private.

§ 2. For the regulation of divine public worship the competent authority is the one mentioned in can. 657, with due regard for can. 199, § 1; no other person can add to, remove, or modify that which was established by this authority.

Can. 669

Since the sacraments are the same for the entire Church and belong to the divine deposit, it is for the supreme authority of the Church alone to approve or define those things which are required for their validity.

Can. 670

§ 1. For a just cause Catholics can attend the liturgical worship of other Christians and take part in the same, observing those things which, by reason of the degree of communion with the Catholic Church, are established by the eparchial bishop or by a superior authority.

§ 2. If non-Catholic Christians lack a place in which divbilises: th dignity, the eparchial bishop can grant the use of a Catholic building or cemetery or church according to the norm of particular law of his own Church sui iuris.

Can. 671

§ 1. Catholic ministers licitly administer the sacraments only to Catholic Christian faithful, who, likewise, licitly receive the sacraments only from Catholic ministers.

§ 2. If necessity requires it or genuine spiritual advantage suggests it and provided that the danger of error or indifferentism is avoided, it is permitted for Catholic Christian faithful, for whom it is physically or morally impossible to approach a Catholic minister, to receive the sacraments of penance, the Eucharist and anointing of the sick from non-Catholic ministers, in whose Churches these sacraments are valid.

 § 3. Likewise Catholic ministers licitly administer the sacraments of penance, the Eucharist and anointing of the sick to Christian faithful of Eastern Churches, who do not have full communion with the Catholic Church, if they ask for them on their own and are properly disposed. This holds also for the Christian faithful of other Churches, who according to the judgement of the Apostolic See, are in the same condition as the Eastern Churches as far as the sacraments are concerned.

§ 4. If there is a danger of death or another matter of serious necessity in the judgement of the eparchial bishop, the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church or the council of hierarchs, Catholic ministers licitly administer the same sacraments also to other Christians not having full communion with the Catholic Church, who cannot approach the ministers of their own ecclesial communities and who request them on their own, provided they manifest a faith consonant with that of the Catholic Church concerning these sacraments and are rightly disposed.

§ 5. For the cases in §§ 2, 3 and 4, norms of particular law are to enacted only after consultation with at least the local competent authority of the non-Catholic Church or ecclesial community concerned.

Can. 672

§ 1. The sacraments of baptism, chrismation with holy myron and sacred ordination cannot be repeated.

§ 2. If a prudent doubt exists as to whether they have been truly or validly celebrated, and the doubt remains after a serious investigation, they are to be administered conditionally.

 Can. 673

The celebration of the sacraments, above all the Divine Liturgy, as an action of the Church, in as much as it is possible, should be done with active participation of the Christian faithful.

Can. 674

§ 1. In celebrating the sacraments that which is contained in the liturgical books is to be observed accurately.

§ 2. The minister should celebrate the sacraments according to the liturgical prescriptions of his own Church sui iuris, unless the law establishes otherwise or he himself has obtained a special faculty from the Apostolic See.



Can. 675

§ 1. In baptism a person through washing with natural water with the invocation of the name of God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, is freed from sin, reborn to new life, puts on Christ and is incorporated in the Church which is His Body.

§ 2. Only by the actual reception of baptism is a person made capable for the other sacraments.

Can. 676

In a case of urgent necessity, baptism can be licitly administered by doing only those things which are necessary for validity.

Can. 677

§1. Baptism is administered ordinarily by a priest; but, with due regard for particular law, the parish priest of the person to be baptized, or another priest with the permission of the same parish priest or the local hierarch, is competent for its administration, which permission, for a serious reason is lawfully presumed.

§ 2. In case of necessity, baptism can be administered by a deacon or, in his absence or if he is impeded, by another cleric, a member of an institute of consecrated life, or by any other Christian faithful; even by the mother or father, if another person is not available who knows how to baptize.

Can. 678

§ 1. In the territory of another it is not licit for anyone to administer without the required permission; this permission cannot be denied by the parish priest of a different Church sui iuris to a priest of a Church sui iuris to which the person to be baptized is to be ascribed.

 § 2. In places where there are not a few Christian faithful lacking a parish priest of the Church sui iuris to which they are ascribed, the eparchial bishop should designate a priest of that Church, if it is possible, who should administer baptism.

Can. 679

Every person not yet baptized and only such a person is capable of receiving baptism.

Can. 680

An aborted foetus should be baptized, if it is alive and if it can be done,.

 Can. 681

§ 1. For an infant to be licitly baptized it is required that:

1° there is a realistic hope that the infant will be educated in the Catholic Church, without prejudice to § 5;

2° the parents, or at least one of them, or the person who lawfully takes their place, consent.

§ 2. Abandoned infants and foundlings, unless their baptism is certainly established, are to be baptized.

§ 3. Those who lack the use of reason from infancy are to be baptized as infants.

§ 4. Infants whether of Catholic or even of non-Catholic parents who are in such a critical situation that it can be prudently foreseen that they will die before they reach the use of reason, are licitly baptized.

§ 5. Infants of non-Catholic Christians are licitly baptized, if their parents or at least one of them or the person who lawfully takes their place request it, and if it is physically or morally impossible for them to approach their own minister.

Can. 682

§ 1. For a person who is no longer an infant to be baptized, it is required that he or she manifest a desire to receive baptism and be sufficiently instructed in the truths of the faith and be tested in the Christian life; the adult is to be exhorted to have sorrow for personal sins.

§ 2. A person who is no longer an infant and who is in danger of death can be baptized, if he or she has an understanding of the principal truths of the faith and in any way manifests the intention of receiving baptism.

Can. 683

Baptism must be celebrated according to the liturgical prescriptions of the Church sui iuris in which according to the norm of law the person to be baptized is to be ascribed.

Can. 684

§ 1. According to the most ancient tradition of the Churches he person who is to be baptized should have at least one sponsor.

§ 2. In fulfilling the function of a sponsor; the sponsor is to assist in the Christian initiation for a person who is no longer an infant; or to present the infant to be baptized and to help the baptized person lead a Christian life in harmony with baptism and to fulfill faithfully the obligations connected with it.

Can. 685

§ 1. For a person to fulfill validly the role of a sponsor it is necessary that he or she:

1° be initiated with the three sacraments of baptism, chrismation with holy myron and the Eucharist;

2° belong to the catholic Church, with due regard for § 3;

3° have the intention of carrying out the responsibility of sponsor;

4° be designated by the person to be baptized or the parents or guardians, or, if there are not any, by the minister;

5° not be the father, mother or spouse of the person to be baptized;

6° not be bound by excommunication, even a minor one, suspension, deposition or deprived of the right of acting in the function of a sponsor.

§ 2. To assume lawfully the role of sponsor, in addition to what is required, the sponsor should be of the age required by particular law and lead a life in harmony with the faith and the role to be undertaken.

§ 3. For a just cause, it is permitted to admit a Christian faithful of another Eastern non-Catholic Church to the function of a sponsor, but always at the same time with a Catholic sponsor.

Can. 686

§ 1. Parents are held to the obligation that the infant be baptized as soon as possible according to the legitimate custom.

§ 2. The parish priest is to see to it that the parents of the infant to be baptized and the future sponsors are instructed about the meaning of this sacrament and the obligations connected with it and that they are suitably prepared for the celebration of the sacrament.

Can. 687

§ 1. Outside of a case of necessity, baptism is to celebrated in a parish church with due regard for lawfull customs.

§ 2. Baptism can be administered in private homes according to the prescriptions of particular law or with the permission of the local hierarch.

Can. 688

The person who administers the baptism is to see to it that, unless there is a sponsor, there be at least one witness, by whom the celebration of the baptism can be proven.

Can. 689

§ 1. The parish priest of the place where the baptism is celebrated, must record carefully and without delay in the baptismal register, the names of those baptized, making mention also of the minister, the parents, the sponsors, and also the witnesses, if there are any, the place and date of the baptism. To be indicated are also the place of birth and the Church sui iuris in which the baptized persons are ascribed.

§ 2. If it is a case of a child born of an unwed mother, the name of the other is to be indicated if her maternity is publicly established or if she requests it on her own in writing or before two witnesses; likewise the name of the father is to indicated if his paternity is proven with some public document or by his own declaration made before the parish priest and two witnesses; in other cases the name of the baptized is to be recorded without any indication of the name of the father or parents.

§ 3. If it is a case of an adopted child, the names of the adoptive parents are recorded and also, at least if it is done in the civil records of the region, the names of the natural parents, according to the norms of §§ 1 and 2 and with due regard for particular law.

Can. 690

If the baptism was administered neither by the parish priest nor in his presence, the minister must notify the parish priest of the place. 

Can. 691

For proof of baptism, if it is not prejudicial to anyone, it suffices to have the declaration of one witness who is unexceptionable or even the declaration of the baptized person founded on sure arguments, especially if the person received baptism when no longer an infant.



Can. 692

Those who have been baptized ought to be chrismated with holy myron, in order that signed with the seal of the Holy Spirit\’s gift they become more efficient witnesses and co-builders of the Kingdom of Christ.

Can. 693

Holy myron, which is made from the oil of olives or other plants and from aromatics, is confected only by a bishop, with due regard for particular law which reserves this power to the patriarch.

Can. 694

According to the tradition of the Eastern Churches, chrismation with holy myron is administered by a presbyter either in conjunction with baptism or separately.

Can. 695

§ 1. Chrismation with holy myron must be administered in conjunction with baptism, except in a case of true necessity, in which case, however, care is to be taken to have it administered as soon as possible.

§ 2. If the celebration of chrismation with holy myron is not done together with baptism, the minister is obliged to notify the parish priest of the place where the baptism was administered.

Can. 696

§ 1. All presbyters of the Eastern Churches can validly administer this sacrament either along with baptism or separately to all the Christian faithful of any Church sui iuris including the Latin Church.

§ 2. The Christian faithful of Eastern Churches validly receive this sacrament also from presbyters of the Latin Church, according to the faculties with which these are endowed.

§ 3. Any presbyter lawfully administers this sacrament only to the Christian faithful of his own Church sui iuris; when it is a case of Christian faithful of other Churches sui iuris, he lawfully acts if they are his subjects, or those whom he lawfully baptizes in virtue of another title, or those who are in danger of death, and always with due regard for the agreements entered between the Churches sui iuris in this matter.

Can. 697

The sacramental initiation in the mystery of salvation is completed with the reception of the Divine Eucharist; therefore after baptism and chrismation with holy myron the Divine Eucharist is to be administered as soon as possible according to the norms of the particular law of each Church sui iuris.



Can. 698

What the Lord Jesus himself did at the Last Supper is perpetuated in the Divine Liturgy by the power of the Holy Spirit through the ministry of the priest who acts in the person of Christ over the offering of the Church. Christ Jesus gave to his disciples his body, which was to be offered for us on the cross, and his blood, which was to be poured out for us, thus instituting the true and mystical sacrifice. In this sacrifice the bloody sacrifice of the cross is commemorated with thanksgiving, is actuated and shared by the Church through oblation and through communion, in order to signify and realize the unity of the people of God and to build up Christ\’s Body, namely the Church.

Can. 699

§ 1. Only bishops and presbyters have the power to celebrate the Divine Liturgy.

§ 2. Along with bishops and presbyters deacons have a very close share in the celebration of the Divine Liturgy and have a ministry proper to them according to the prescriptions of the  liturgical books.

§ 3. By virtue of their baptism and chrismation with holy myron the other Christian faithful take part in the celebration of the Divine Liturgy and participate actively in the sacrifice of Christ in the manner determined by the liturgical books or particular law; they do so more fully if they receive the body and blood of Christ from the same sacrifice.

 Can. 700

§ 1. With regard to the manner of celebrating the Divine Liturgy, whether it should be done individually or in concelebration, attention should be given above all to the pastoral needs of the Christian faithful.

§ 2. If it is possible, presbyters are to celebrate the Divine Liturgy together with the presiding bishop or with another presbyter, since thus the unity of the priesthood and of the sacrifice will be properly manifested. Each priest, however, has his inviolate right to celebrate the Divine Liturgy individually, not, however, simultaneously when a concelebration is taking place in the same church.

Can. 701

Bishops and presbyters of different Churches sui iuris may concelebrate for a just reason, especially to foster love and to manifest the unity of the Churches. For this the permission of the eparchial bishop is to be had. All follow the prescriptions of the liturgical books of the principal celebrant, avoiding any liturgical syncretism whatever but all preferably wearing the liturgical vestments and insignia of their own Church sui iuris.

Can. 702

Catholic priests are forbidden to concelebrate the Divine Liturgy with non-Catholic priests or ministers.

Can. 703

§ 1. A priest who is a stranger is not to be admitted to the celebration of the Divine Liturgy, unless he shows the rector of the church a letter of recommendation from his own hierarch, or the rector is satisfied in some other way about his honesty.

§ 2. The eparchial bishop is free to make more specific norms concerning this matter which are to be observed by all priests, even those who are exempt in any way.

 Can. 704

The Divine Liturgy can be praiseworthily celebrated on any day except those which are excluded according to the prescriptions of the liturgical books of the Church sui iuris in which the priest is ascribed.

Can. 705

§ 1. A Catholic priest can celebrate the Divine Liturgy on the altar of any Catholic church.

§ 2. In order for a priest to be able to celebrate the Divine Liturgy in a non-Catholic church, he needs the permission of the local hierarch.

Can. 706

The sacred gifts offered in the Divine Liturgy are pure wheat bread recently made, so that there is no danger of corruption, and uncorrupt natural grape wine.

 Can. 707

§ 1. The particular law of each Church sui iuris must have accurate norms determining the preparation of the Eucharistic bread, the prayers to be recited by the priests before the Divine Liturgy, the observance of the Eucharistic fast, the liturgical vestments, the time and place of the celebration and other like matters.

§ 2. Without causing shock to Christ\’s faithful, it is lawful to use the liturgical vestments and bread of another Church sui iuris, if the liturgical vestments and bread of one\’s own Church are not available.

Can. 708

The local hierarchs and the parish priests are to ensure that Christ\’s faithful are very carefully instructed concerning the obligation of receiving the Divine Eucharist in danger of death and also at those times which are established by the laudable tradition or by the particular law of the respective Church sui iuris, especially at Easter time, when Christ the Lord bequeathed the Eucharistic mysteries.

Can. 709

§ 1. It is the priest who distributes the Divine Eucharist or, if the particular law of his Church sui iuris provides for it, also the deacon.

§ 2. The synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church or the council of hierarchs is free to establish suitable norms according to which other Christian faithful too, may distribute the Divine Eucharist.

Can. 710

Regarding the participation of infants in the Divine Eucharist after baptism and chrismation with holy myron, suitable precautions are to be taken and the prescriptions of the liturgical books of the respective Church sui iuris are to be observed.

Can. 711

With a grave sin on one\’s conscience, no one is to celebrate the Divine Liturgy or receive the Divine Eucharist, unless there is a serious reason and there is no opportunity to receive the sacrament of penance.

In this case one should make an act of perfect contrition, which comprises the intention of approaching this sacrament as soon as possible.

Can. 712

Those who are publicly unworthy are to be prevented from receiving the Divine Eucharist.

Can. 713

§ 1. The Divine Eucharist is to be distributed in the celebration of the Divine Liturgy, unless a just cause suggests otherwise.

§ 2. Concerning the preparation for participation in the Divine Eucharist through fast, prayers and other works, the Christian faithful are to observe faithfully the norms of the Church sui iuris in which they are ascribed,  not only within the territorial boundaries of the same Church, but, in as much as it is possible, everywhere.

Can. 714

§ 1. Observing faithfully the prescriptions of the liturgical books of the respective Church sui iuris, the Divine Eucharist is to be reserved, especially for the sick, in churches where there is public divine worship and at least several times a month the Divine Liturgy is celebrated. Also, the Divine Eucharist is to be adored with the greatest reverence by Christ\’s faithful.

§ 2. The reservation of the Divine Eucharist is under the vigilance and moderation of the local hierarch.

Can. 715

§ 1. It is lawful for priests to receive the offerings which Christ\’s faithful, following a custom approved by the Church, give for celebrating the Divine Liturgy for their intentions.

§ 2. It is also permissible, if it is thus established by lawful custom, to receive offerings for the Liturgy of the Pre sanctified and for commemorations in the Divine Liturgy.

Can. 716

Without prejudice to can. 1013, it is earnestly recommended that eparchial bishops introduce, to the extent that this is possible, the practice whereby on the occasion of the Divine Liturgy only those offerings are received which Christ\’s faithful make on their own accord. Even without any offering individual priests are to celebrate readily the Divine Liturgy for the intentions of Christ\’s faithful, especially of the needy.

Can. 717

If they accept offerings for the Divine Liturgy from the Christian faithful of another Church sui iuris, priests are bound by the grave obligation of observing the norms of that Church, unless it is established otherwise by the donor.



Can. 718

In the sacrament of penance Christian faithful turn to God in their hearts under the leading of the Holy Spirit from the sins committed after baptism. Moved by sorrow for their sins they resolve to lead a new life. Through the ministry of the priest, to whom they make confession and from whom they accept a deserving penance, they obtain forgiveness from God and at the same time are reconciled with the Church, which they have wounded through sin. Thus this sacrament contributes greatly to the fostering of Christian life and disposes Christian faithful for the reception of the Divine Eucharist.

Can. 719

Anyone who is aware of serious sin is to receive the sacrament of penance as soon as possible; it is strongly recommended to all the Christian faithful that they receive this sacrament frequently especially during the times of fasts and penance observed in their own Church sui iuris.

Can. 720

§ 1. Individual and integral confession and absolution constitute the sole ordinary means by which Christ\’s faithful with a grave sin on his or her conscience is reconciled with God and the Church. Physical or moral impossibility alone excuses from such confession, in which case reconciliation can be effected by other means also.

§ 2. General absolution without prior individual confession cannot be imparted to several penitents together unless:

1° there is imminent danger of death, and there is no time for the priest or priests to administer the sacrament of penance to the individual penitents;

2° there is a grave necessity, that is, if considering the number of penitents, priests are on short supply to administer the sacrament of penance to the individual penitents within a reasonable time so that, through no fault of theirs they will be forced for a long time to forego the sacramental grace or the reception of the Divine Eucharist. The necessity is not regarded as sufficient when it is not possible for confessors to be available merely because of a great gathering of penitents such as can happen on some great feast day or pilgrimage.

§ 3. The eparchial bishop is competent to decide whether such grave necessity exists. He can, after having held consultation with patriarchs and eparchial bishops of other Churches sui iuris who exercise power in the same territory, determine the cases of such necessity even through general prescriptions.

Can. 721

§ 1. For Christ\’s faithful to benefit from a general sacramental absolution given to a number of people, they have not only to be properly disposed but be at the same time personally resolved to confess in due time each of the grave sins which they cannot for the moment so confess.

§ 2. As far as possible Christ\’s faithful are to be instructed about these requirements and are besides to be exhorted even in danger of death to make an act of contrition personally.

Can. 722

§ 1. Only a priest is the minister of the sacrament of penance.

§ 2. All bishops can ipso iure administer the sacrament of penance throughout the world, unless with regard to liceity, the eparchial bishop opposes it expressly.

§ 3. For presbyters to act validly, they must besides possess the faculty to administer the sacrament of penance; such faculty is conferred either ipso iure or by a special grant made by competent authority.

§ 4. Priests who have the faculty to administer the sacrament of penance by virtue of their office or by virtue of a grant of the local hierarch of the eparchy in which they are ascribed or in which they have domicile, can validly administer the sacrament of penance anywhere to any Christian faithful, unless some local hierarch in a special case expressly opposes it. They use these faculties licitly, observing the norms made by the eparchial bishop and also with at least the presumed permission of the rector of the church or, in case of a house of an institute of consecrated life, of the superior.

 Can. 723

§ 1. In virtue of his office and each within the limits of his ambit, besides the local hierarch the parish priest too and any other who takes the place of the parish priest, is endowed with the faculty to administer the sacrament of penance.

 § 2. In virtue of his office every superior of a religious institute or of a society of common life in the manner of religious of pontifical or patriarchal law, if he is a priest, is endowed with the faculty to administer the sacrament of penance to the members of his own institute and also to those who live in his house day and night.

Can. 724

§ 1. Only the local hierarch is competent to confer on any presbyterby a special grant the faculty of administering the sacrament of penance  to any of the Christian faithful.

 § 2. The superior of an institute of consecrated life, provided he is endowed with the executive power of governance, can confer the faculty mentioned in can. 723, § 2 on any presbyter according to the norms of the typicon or statutes.

 Can. 725

Any priest can validly and licitly absolve from any sins any  penitents who are in danger of death, even if another priest is present who is endowed with the faculty to administer the sacrament of penance. 

Can. 726

§ 1. The faculty to administer the sacrament of penance may not be revoked except for a serious reason.

§ 2. If the faculty to administer the sacrament of penance, granted by the hierarch mentioned in can. 722, § 4 is revoked, the presbyter loses it everywhere; if it is revoked by another competent authority, the presbyter loses it only within the ambit of the one who revokes it.

§ 3. Apart from revocation, the faculty mentioned in can. 722, § 4 ceases, by the loss of office, of ascription in an eparchy or of domicile.

Can. 727

In some cases, in order to provide for the salvation of souls it may be appropriate to restrict the faculty to absolve from sins and reserve it to a determined authority; this, however, cannot be done without the consent of the Synod of Bishops of the Patriarchal Church or of the Council of Hierarchs or of the Apostolic See.

Can. 728

§ 1. Absolution from the following sins is reserved to the Apostolic See:

 1° direct violation of the sacramental seal;

2° absolution of an accomplice in a sin against chastity.

§ 2. It is reserved to the eparchial bishop to absolve from the sin of procuring an abortion effectively.

Can. 729

Any reservation of the absolution from sin lacks all force:

1° if a sick person who cannot leave the house or a spouse confess in order to celebrate marriage;

2° if in the prudent judgement of the confessor, the faculty cannot be requested from the competent authority without grave inconvenience to the penitent or without danger of violation of the sacramental seal;

3° outside the territorial boundaries in which the authority who makes the reservation exercises power.

Can. 730

Absolution of an accomplice in a sin against chastity is invalid except in danger of death.

Can. 731

One who confesses a false denunciation of an innocent confessor to ecclesiastical authority concerning the crime of solicitation to sin against chastity is not to be  absolved unless that person formally retracts the denunciation and is prepared to repair damages if there are any.

Can. 732

§ 1. The confessor is to offer a fitting cure for the illness by imposing appropriate works of penance in keeping with the quality, seriousness and number of the sins, and considering the condition of the penitent as well as his or her disposition for conversion.

§ 2. The priest is to remember that he is placed by God as a minister of divine justice and mercy; as a spiritual father he should also offer appropriate counsel so that the penitent might progress in his or her vocation to sanctity.

Can. 733

§ 1. The sacramental seal is inviolable; therefore the confessor must diligently refrain either by word, sign or any other manner from betraying the penitent for any reason.

  2. The obligation of observing secrecy also binds an interpreter if one is present, and also all others, to whom knowledge of the sins from confession comes in any way.

Can. 734

§ 1. A confessor is absolutely prohibited to use the knowledge acquired from confession when it might harm the penitent, even if every danger of revelation is excluded.

§ 2. One who is placed in authority can in no way use for external governance knowledge about sins which he has received in confession at any time.

§ 3. Directors of institutes of education ordinarily do not administer the sacrament of penance to their students.

Can. 735

§ 1. All to whom by virtue of an office the care of souls is committed are bound by the grave obligation to provide for the administration of the sacrament of penance to Christ\’s faithful entrusted to them, who appropriately ask for it; these are also to be given the opportunity to make individual confession on days and at times arranged to suit them.

§ 2. In urgent necessity any priest endowed with the faculty of administering the sacrament of penance has to administer this sacrament, but in danger of death also any other priest.

Can. 736

§ 1. The proper place for the celebration of the sacrament of penance is a church, with due regard for particular law.

§ 2. Because of sickness or another just reason this sacrament can be celebrated also outside its proper place.